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Sunday, June 17, 2018

12:46 AM

Samtylaya karya avam apramanit karya

Samtylaya karya

Samtylaya karya se aashay yah hai ki jab kisi nirman k antergat yah gyat kiya jata hai ki ardh nimrit ikaiya kitni purn nirmit ikaiyo k barabar hai toh isse Samtylaya utpadan kaha jata hai.

Sapashtikaran

Yeh ardhnimrit maal k mulyankan ki ek vidhi hai. Ardhnimrit ikaiyo ka mulyanakan un par vyay ki gayi ek vidhi hai. Isme yah gyat kiya jata hai ki ardh nimrit ikaiya kitni nimrit ikaiyo k barabar hai.

Samtylaya utpadan k lekhankan ki vidhi-

Samtylaya utpadan ka vivran tyar karna. Samtylaya utpadan ki prati ikai lagat gyat karna. Chalu karya avam nimrit maal ki lagat gyat karna. Prakariya khata banana.

Apramanit karya

Apramanit karya se yeh aashay hai ki theke par diye gaye karya ka joh bhaag thekadata k engineer duvara pramanit nahi hota use apramanit karya kiya jata hai.

Vyakhaya

Thekhadata k engineer duvara karaya pramanit kiye gaye vyay apramanit karya mei samilit kiye jate hai. In vyayo ko chalu karya mei sammilit kiya jata hai. Apramanit karya ko thekha khate mei vastavik mulya par dikhaya jata hai.

Lagat patr va lagat vivaran patr mei antar

Lagat patr ek aisa vivran hai, jisme utpadit vastu par prambh se aant tak k sabhi vyayo ka vivran diya jata hai tatha prateyk satr par prati ikai lagat gyat ki jati hai.

Iski nimn visheshtayeen hai, yeh ek vivran patr hai. Nishtit samya se sambandhit hota hai. Prayataksh aur aprayataksh dono prakar k vyayo ko sammilit kiya jata hai. Prayataksh vyay anumaan par aadharit hote hai. Prateyk satr par prati ikai lagat dikhayi jati hai.

Iske nimn gun hai, kool lagat ka gyan hota hai. Prati ikai lagat ka gyan hota hai. Tulnatmak aadhyan mei sahayk hai.

Lagat vivran patr

Iske antargat utpadan k pratyek satr ki kool lagat gyat ki jati hai tatha pratyek satr par prarambhik va antim rehatiyo ko bhi dhyan mei rakha jata hai.

Visheshtayeen

pratyek satr par kool lagat gyat ki jati hai. pratyek satr k prambhik va antim sakandh ko dhyan mei rakha jata hai. Prati ikai lagat nikali jati hai.

Utpadan khate ka namuna

Jab kisi vastoo k utpadan k lagat sambhandi aakdo ko dhora lekha pranali k aadhar par ek khate k roop mei prastoot kiya jata hai, toh isse Utpadan khata kehte hai.

Samuuh C-21 par kiye gaye vyayo ka vivran

Factory uprivyay kaam k ghanto k aadhar par lagaye jate hai jiski dar vibhag  A k liye ruppes 12 prati ghanta tatha vibhag B k liye ruppes 5 prati ghanta hai. Farm vikraya mulya nirdharit karne k liye lagat dhan padhati apnnati hai aur 25% sakal labh ( vikraya mulya – karkhana lagat) ki aasha karti hai. Prashsanik vyay vikraya mulaya par 10 % lagaye jate hai. Yeh maante hue ki samuh C-121 mei 500 ikaiyo ka utpadan hua prati ikai vikaraya mulaya ki ganna.

Niti adhhayan

Niti adhhayan se aashay frank gilbirth k anusaar, gati aadhyan veh vigyaan hai jiske duvara anavshyak, anirdeshit  tatha akushal gati se hone wali shati ko samapat kiya ja sake. Sanshep mei, yeh klaha ja sakta hai ki shramiko duvara kisi karya ko pura karne k liye joh gatividhiyo apnani jati hai unka vishleshan hi gati adhyan hai.

Sapashtikaran

Yeh manveey sansahadhno ki barbadi ko rokne ki ek padhti hai. Kisi kaam ko pura karne k liye gatividhiyo ko kam karne ka prayas kiys jata hai. Yeh sampan kiye gaye karya ki matra avam gunvata mei sudhar karne ki pravdhi hai. Yeh sharmiko ki anavashyak gatividhiyo ko rokne mei sahayk hai. Yah parbhandko ko kisi karya ki nuantam samya mei pura karane mei sahayk hai. Gatividhiyo ki sankhaya nuntam hone se sharmik thakawat ki samasya se mukt ho jate hai.
12:42 AM

Sarvajanik Company Tatha Iski Visheshtaye

Sarvajanik Company

Dhara 2(71) ke anusar, sarvajanik company se tatpary aisi company se hai jo vyaktigat company na hokar artarth sarvajanik company veh hai jiske ansh swatantrapurvak hastantransheel hote hai, sadasyo ki sankhya par koi pratibandh nahi hota hai v ansh v rin patr kharidne ke liye janta ko nimantrit kiya jat hai. Tatha nyuntam punji panch lakh rupees rakh sakte hai.

Sarvajanik Company Tatha Iski Visheshtaye


Visheshtaye

Ansho ka swatantra hastantran

Sarvajanik company ke ansh swatantrapurvak hastantransheel hote hai, hastantran par koi rok nahi hoti.

Sadasyo ki adhiktam sankhya par pratibandh nahi

Sarvajanik company mei niyuntam sankhya saat hoti hai lakin adhiktam sankhya par koi pratibandh nahi hota.

Janto ko mimantran

Sarvjanik company mei ansh v rin patra kharidne ke liye janta ko nimantrit kiya jata hai, yeh karya pravivaran nirgamit karke kiye jata hai.

Niyuntam punji panch lakh rupees

Sarvajanik company ke liye yeh anivarya hai ki niyuntam punji panch lakh rupees ya sarkar duara nirdharit rakam ke barabar rakhe.

Pramukh Anter

Ansho ki hastantarnsheelta

Vyaktigat company mei ansho ke hastaran par rok hoti hai, jabki sarvajanik company ke ansh swatantrapurvak hastaransheel hote hai.

Sadasyo ki sankhya

Vyaktigat company mei sadasyo ki adhiktam sankhya kramshay do v pachas hoti hai jabki sarvajanik company mei saat v adhiktam ki koi sima nahi hoti hai.

Janta ko nimatran

Vyatigat company mei ansh avaran patra kharidne ke liye janta ko nimantrit nahi kiya jata jabki sarvajanik company mei privaran nirgamit karke janta ko nirgamit kiya jata hai.

Vyavsay ka prarambh

Vyaktigat company samalenan ke turant pachat turant vyavsaay shuru kar sakte hai kintu sarvajanik  company ko vyavsay prarambh karne ka parman patra lena padhta hai.

Vedhanik sabha

Vyaktigat company ke liye Vedanik sabha bulana avashayk nahi hota kintu sarvajanik company ko anivarya roop se vadhabik sabha bulani padhti hai.

Prabandh ke parishramik

Vyaktigat company mei prabandhako ko kitna bhi parishramik diya ja sakta hai, kintu  sarvajanik company adhik se adhik labh ka 11% prabandhak parishramik ke roop mei de skati hai.

Anterniyam

Vyaktigat company mei anterniyam banana anivarya hota hai kintu sarvajanik company sarni a apna sakti hai.

Naam

Vyaktigat company mei company ke naam ke baad private shabd lagana avshyak hai jbaki sarvajanik company mei public likhne ki avashyakta nahi hai.

Sanchalako ki sankhya

Vyaktigat company mei sanchaloko mei niyuntam sankhya do hai jabki sarvajanik company mei sanchalako ki niyuntam sankhya teen hai.

Sanchalko ko rin

Vyaktigat company mei sanchalako ko diye jane wale rin par koi pratibandh nahi hai jabki sarvajanik rin dene ke liye agya Kendra sarkar se lene padhti hai.

Dat punji

Eak vyaktigat company ke liye anivarya hai ki veh niyuntam datt punji ke eak lakh rakhe jabki sarvjanik company ko n iyuntam panch lakh rakhne hote hai.    
               

Utpidan

Alphin rakhne wale sadasyo parvrahat hit rakhne wale sadasyo duara anyaypurn nirnay laghu karna utpidan hai.

Utpidan se bachav

Court ko avedan patra dena

Kam  se ka 100 sadasy ya 1/10 punji rakhne wale sadasy prathna patra de sakte hai. Bina ansh punji wale sadasy prathnapatr de sakte hai, court utpidan se bachab ke liye uchit adesh pass kar sakta hai.

Kendra sarkar ko avedan patra dena

Kam se kam 100 sadasy ya 1/10 punji rakhne wale sadasy Kendra sarkar ko prathna patra de sakte hai, Kendra sarkar court mei avedan patra de sakti hai ki utpidan roka jaye, court bhi adesh dene se pehle Kendra sarkar ko suchna dega.

Vyaktigat company tatha sarvajanik company

Vyaktigat company

Vyaktigat company veh hai jisme sadasyo ki niyuntam sankhya do hoti hai aur adhiktam 200 ho ho sakti hai.

Sarvjanik company

Sarvajanik company veh haij jisme sadasyo ki niyuntam sankhya 7 hoti hai tatha adhiktam sankhya par koi pratibandh nahi hota. 

12:37 AM

Company Se Aashay Avam Vyaktigat Tatha Sarvajanik Company Mei Anter

Company

Company adhiniyam 2014 ki dhara ke anusar, company se tatpary company adhiniyam ke adhin nirmit company se hai tatha isme eak aisi vidhyman company ko bhi samilit kiya jata hai jiska nirman pehle ki kisi company adhiniyam ke antetgrat kiya gaya hai , lakin upyakt paribhasha company ki visheshtao par prakash nahi daalti.

Pro hene company ki sampurn paribhasha dene ka pryatn kiya hai. Unke anusar company rajniyam duara nirmit eak kritim vyakti hai jiska prathak avam sthai asthithv hota hgai tatha jiske sath sarvmuda hota hai.

Upyukt paribhashao ke vishleshan se yeh spasht hai “ vidhan duara nirmit kritim vyakti ko company kaha jata hai, jiska astitv apne sadastyo se alag hota hai tatha jise avishitra utaradhikar prapt hota hai. Iske pass eak sarvmuda hoti hai, iska nirman kisi samany udeshay se kiya jata hai tatha iske sadasyo ka dayitv pray simit hota hai.

Viheshtaye

Upyukt paribhashaoe ke vishleshan ke baad company ki nimn visheshtaye batai ja sakti hai.

Kritim vyakti

Eak vyakti ki bhanti eak company ki bhanti bhi apne naam mei sampati rakh sakti hai isiliye veh vyakti hai , lakin eak vastavik vyakti nahi hai kyunki isme haad mans nahi hota.

Vidhan duara nirmit

Company ka nirman adhiniyam duara hota hai aur use keval vahi adhikaaar prapt hote hai jabki adhiniyam duara use pradan kiye jate hai.

Prathak asthitv

Samamelan ke baad company ka astitv apne sadasyo se apnea lag ho jata hai, ateh sadasyo ke mrityu, pagalpan, aadi ka company ke astitv par koi prabhav nahi padta. Is sambhandh mei soloman banam soloman and company ka vivaad vishesh ulekhniye hai . jisme yeh nirnay kiya gaya tatha company apne sadasyo ki agent nahi hai.

Avichitra utradhikar

Ansho ke antergrat ki suvidha uplabhdh hone ke karan company ko nirnatar utaradhikar prapat hai. Sadasye aate jate rehte hai lakin company nirantar chalti rehti hai.

Saarvmudra

Company ke pass eak mohar hoti hai jise company ka hastakshar kaha jata hai. Mohar ko adhikrat vyakti hi company ki aur se prayog kar sakte hai.

Saman udeshya

Praya company ka nirman kuch vadhanik vyavsay karke ardhit labh kamana hota hai.

Simit dayitv

Company ke sadastyo ka dayitv sadav simit hota hai, yeh dayitv pyaya do prakar ka ho sakta hai. Ansho duara simit, garenty duara simit.

Vyaktigat Tatha Sarvajanik Company Ke Anter

Vyaktigat company

Company adhinityam 2013 ki dharaa 2(68) ke anusar vyaktigat company se tatapary eak aisi company se hai jo apne anterniyamo duara, ansho ke hastantaran par pratibandh lagati hai, sadasyo ki sankhya 50 tak simit karti hai, ansh ya rin patra kharidne ke liye janta nimantaran dene ka nishedh karti rehti hai, niyuntam punji eak lakh rupyee rakhti hai.

Visheshtaye

Ansho ke hastantaran par rok lagana

Ansh swatantr roop se hanstataransheel nahi hote, pyay anter niyam mei yeh vyavstha kar di jati hai ki ansh keval nishchit muly par hi hastantrit kiye ja sakte hai.

Sadastyo ki sankhya pachas tak simit

Sadastyo ki ganna mei nimn ko samilit nahi kiya jata, eak sadasy jo karamchari bhi hai, aisi sadasye jo bhutpurn karamchari hai, sanyuk anshdahri keval eak mane jayenge.

Janta ko nimantaran ka nishedh

Vyaktigat companiyo mei yeh pravdhan hota hai ki veh apne rin patro v ansh janta kmo nahi bech sakte aur na hi iske liye janta ko nimantarit kar sakte hai.

Niyuntam punji eak lakh rupyee

Eak vyaktigat company ke liye anivarya hai ki niyuntam punji eak lakh rupee ya sarkar duara nirdharit rakam ke barabar ho.

Sarvajanik company

Dhara 2(71), ke anusar sarvjanik company se tatpary eakm aisi company se hai jo vyaktigat company na ho arthart sarvjanik company veh hai jiske ansh swatantra purvak hastantarasheel hote hai. 
12:34 AM

Bharat, Aakar Aur Sithti

Aakar Or Sthiti

Bharat vishv ki prachintam Sanskrityo mei se ek hai. Pichle pdhyi ki hai. Krishi, uaanch dashko mei bharat ne samajik- aarthik roop se bahumukhi unnnati ki hai. Krishi, udhyog, takniki aur sarvageen aarthik vikas mei adhbhut pragati hui hai. Bharat ka vishv itihaas mei bhi mahatvpurn yogdaan raha hai.

Sithti

bharat ek vishal desh hai. Yeh utri golardh mei sith hai. Iska mukhya bhag uthari akshansh se purv deshantar tak hai. Kark rekha bharat ko lagabhag do barabar bhago mei baattati hai. Mukhya bhu bhag k dakshin – purv mei, andmaan aur nikobaar deep samuh bangal ki khadi mei tatha dakshin – pashchim mei lakshdeep samuh aarab sagar mei sith hai.

Aakar

bharat k bhu bhag ka kul shetr 32.8 kakh varg kilometer hai. Bharat ka shetrafal vishv k kool bhagolik  k shetrfall ka 2.4 % hai. Bharat vish ka sathva bada desh hai. Bharat ki sathal sima lagbhag 15200 kilometer hai aur samundari tat rekha andmaan aur nikobaar deep samuh tatha lakshdeep samuh k sath 7.516.6 kilometer hai.

Bharat k utar pashchim, utar tatha utar purvi seema par navintam valit parvat hai. Iske dakshin ka bhu bhag utar mei choda hai. Aur 22* utari akshansh se hind mahasagar ki aur sankra hota gaya hai. Iske pashchim mei arab sagar tatha purv mei bangal ki khadi sith hai.

Akshansh aur deshantar ka vistaar lagbhag 30* hai. Parantu phir bhi purv- pashchim ka vistaar uttar-dakshin k vistaar ki apeksha kam pratrrt hota hai. Gujraat se arunachal k sathaniy samay mei do ghante ka antar hai. Akshansh ka prabhav dakshin se uttar ki aur, din aur raat ki avdhi par padhta hai.

Bharat  tatha vishv

Bhartiye  bhukhand aishiya mahadeep k purv aur pashchim k Madhya mei sit hai. Bhartiye bhu bhag aishiya mahadeep k dakshani vistaar hai. Hind mahasagar joh ki pashchim mei yuroopey deho aur purvi aishiyai deho ko milata hai. B harat ko kendreeya sithti pradan karta hai. Dakshin ka pathar himd mahasagar mei shirtvat faila hua hai.

Aur pashchim aishiya, Africa aur yuroop k desho k sath sath purvi aishiya k dsho se bhi purvi tat k madhyam se nikatam sambhand banaye hue hai. Hind mahasagar mei kisi bhi desh ki tatiya seema bharat jaisi nahi hai. Bharat ki issi mahatvpurn sithti k karan ek mahasagar ka naam iske naam par rakha gaya hai.

Bahart ka vishv k desho k sath sampark yuogo purana hai parantu yeh sambhand samundri jalmargo ki apeksha bhubhago se hokar tha. Utari parvato k daro se anek yaatri parchin kaal mei bharat aaye. Jabki samundari maarg bahut samya tak gyat nahi the. In maargo se prachin samya se vicharo aur vastoo ka aadan pradan hota rehta hai.

Bharat ka pachim

Madhya aur purvi aishiya tatha dakshni aishiya k padhosi desho k sath ek adhbhudh sampark raha hai. Issi prakar upnishad k vichaar, ramayan tatha panchtantr ki kahaniya, bhartiya ank avam dashamlav pranali aadi sanssar k vibhin bhago tak paunch sake. Masale, malmal aadei kapda tatha vyapar k aanya saman bharat se vibhin desho ko le jaye jate the. Iske viprit yunani sthapatya kala tatha pachimi aisia ki vastukala ke pratik minaro tatha gubandho ka prabhav humare desh ke vibhin bhago mei dekha gaya.

Bharat ke padosi desh


Bharat ka dakshin asia mei mehetpurn sthan hai. Bharat mei 29 rajya aur 7 kendrashasit shetra hai, bharat ki bhoomi ki simaye uattar pachium mei Pakistan aur avganisthan ke sath, uatar mei china(tibat), Nepal aur Bhutan ke sath tatha purv mei mayamaar v bangladesh ke sath hai. Dakshin mei samunder paar humare padosi do deep samuh shree lanka aur maaldiv hai. Bharat ur shrilanka ke bich mei chota samundria rasta eak pak jal sandhi tatha mayamaar ki khadi hai. 

Saturday, June 16, 2018

3:25 AM

Samajshstra Kya Hai.Samajshastra Ki Upyogita Btaiye

Samajshstra Ka Arth

Samajshatra Ke Itihas Par Drishtipat Karne Se Yeh Gyat Hota Hai Ki Yeh Ek Navviksit Samajik Vigyan Hai.Sarvpratham Is Shabd Ka Prayog Fransisi Vigyan Auguste Comte Ne Kiya Tha Isliye Comte Ko Samajshastra Ka Pita Kaha Jata Hai.Navviksit Vigyan Hone Ke Karan  Samajshstra Ke Vishye Shetreb Ke Bare Mei Vivhin Vidvano Mei Matbhed Hai.Inhi Matbhedo Ke Karan Vibhin Vidvano Ne Samajshastre Ko Alag Alag Prakar Se Paribhashit Kiya Hai.

Samajshastra Ka Arth Evem Paribhashaye

Samajshastre Ko Angreji Mei “Sociology”Kehte Hai Jo Do Shabdo “Socio”Tatha “Logy”Se Milkar Bana Hai.Socio Letin Bhasha Ke Shabd “Socious”Se Bana Hai Jiska Arth Hai”Samaj”Or Logy Greek Bhasha Ke Shabd “Logos”Se Milkar Bana Hai Jiska Arth Vigyan Ya Shashtra Hai.Is Prakar ,Shabdik Arth Mei Samajshastra Veh Vigyan Hai,Jisme Samj Ka Addhyan Kiya Jata Hai.Samajshastre Ko “Samaj”Or “Vigyan”Ke Arth Dwara Samjha Sakta Hai.Iski Paribhashao Ke Anusar Hum Apni Suvidha Anusar Nimnlikhit Bhago Mei Bat Sakte Hai.

Samajshastra Samaj Ka Addhyan Hai

  • Samajshastra Veh Vigyan Hai, Jo Samaj Ka Addhyan Karta Hai
  • Samajshstar Samaj Ka Vigyan Hai
  • Samajshastr Ko Samaj Ke Addhyan Ke Rup Mei Paribhashit Kiya Ja Sakta Hai

Samajshastra Samajik Sambhando Ka Addhyan Hai

  • Samajshastra Samajik Sambhando Ke Vishye Mei Hai Tatha In Sambhando Ke Jal Ko Hum “Samaj”Kehte Hai.
  • Samajshastra Manav Sambhando Ka Vigyan Hai


Samajshastra Samajik Jeevan Or Ghatnaoka Ka Addhyan Hai

  • Samajshatre Samuho Mei Manushye Ke Vyevhar Ka Addyan Kiya Jata Hai
  • Samajshatre Samajik Jeevan Ke Dhanche Or Karyo Ka Vogyan Hai
  • Samajshastre Samajik Jeevan Ka Vegyanik Addyan Hai.

Samajshastra Ki Upyogita

Samajshastre Tathatmak Vigyan Hai.Is Vigyan Ke Antrgrat Samaj Ke Vibhin Pehluo Ka Vegyanik Pditi Ke Dwara Addhyan Kiya Jata Hai.Samajshastre Ka Sendantik,Shekshnik Tatha Vyevaharik Mehtv Evem Upyog Hai.Samajshastre Ke Mehtv Evem Upyogita Ka Varnan Nimnlikhit Hai.

Samajshastre Samaj Tatha Samajik Sambhando Ka Addhyan Hai Tatha Sendantik Gyan Pradan Karta Hai.Samajshastre Vibhin Samajik Pravrtiyo Ka Sahi Gyan Pradan Karta Hai.Yeh Samajshastre Ka Suchnatmak Mehtv Ya Upyog Hai.Samajshastre Ke Addhyan Evem Gyan Se Samaj Mei Sahishduta Mei Vridhi Hoti Hai.Samajshastre Odhyogik Shetre Ki Samasyao Ki Samuchit Jankari Pradan Karta Hai Tatha Unhe Niyantrit Karne Mei Sahayak Hota Hai.

Samaj Kalyan Ke Shetre Mei Bhi Samajshastre Ka Samuchit Yogdan Evem Upyog Hai.Samajshastre Janjatiye Samaj Ka Suksdhm Addyan Karta Hai Tatha Prapt Gayn Evem Jankari Ke Aadahr Par Janjatiye Kalyan Ke Karye Sambhav Ho Pate Hai.Samajshastre Ke Addhyan Vyapak Vyavsayik Upyog Hai Is Addhyan Ke Aadhar Par Vibhin Mei Nokri Prapt Kar Sakta Hai. Samajsahtriye Addhyano Ke Aadahr Par Vibhin Samajik Samasyao Ke Karno Ko Jana Jata Hai.Tatha Unke Nirakaran Ke Upaye Dhunde Jate Hai.Samajshatriye Addhyan Samajik Niyojan Mei Atyadhik Sahayk Tatha Upyogi Siddh Hote Hai.

Manushye Ka Janam Samaj Mei Hota Hai.Samaj Mei Janam Lene Ke Baad Hi Veh Dheere  Dheere Aas Pas Ke Vatavran Ke Samperk Mei Aata Hai Or Usse Prabhavit  Hota Hai Prarambh Meo Vyakti Ek Prakar Se Javik Pradi Hota Hai Kuki Aahar Or Nidra Aadi Ke Atirikt Usey Or Kisi Baat Ka Gyan Nahi Hota Hai Or Uski Avastah Bahut Kuch Pashuo Ke Saamn Hoti Hai.

Samajik Gudo Ke Abhav Mei Balak Kevel Javik Pradi Matra Hota Hai.Mata Pita Ke Samperk Aakar Veh Muskurana Or Pehchanna Sikhta Hai.Dheere Dheere Veh Apne Parivar Ke Anye Sadasyo Ke Samperk  Mei Aata Hai.Aagey Chalkar Or Bade Hone Uske Samperk Ka Shetre Or Adhik Vyapak Ho Jata Hai Tatha Veh Vibhin Samajik Tariko Se Apne Karyo Ka Sanchalan Karta Hai Is Prakar Veh Jevik Pradi Se Samajik Pradi Ban Jata Hai or Samajsahstre Sikhne Ki Ek Parkriya Hai Isi Ke Paridamswarup Vyakti Samaj Mei Rehta Hai Atah Samajik Pradi Banta Hai.Is Prakar Pratyek Samaj Apne Sadasyo Ko Ek Nishchit Oadh Pradan Karta Hai.
12:52 AM

Upri vyavayo k avshoshsnah ya vitran ki padatiya

Karkhana Upri vyavayo ka avshoshan va batvara

Pratayksh samargri adhar- isme utpadan ki bikri ikai per hone wali pratyaksh samagri ka ek nishit pratishat karkhana uprivyay maan liya jata hai. Pratishat ka nirdharan pichle anubhav par kiya jata hai.

Iske nimn gun hai; padhati atyant saral hai. Utpadan k sath sidha sabandh sathapit kiya ja sakta hai.

Iske nimn dosh hai; samagri ka mulaya sathai ni rehta usme parivartan hote hai. Is padhati mei di gayi majdoori ko mehatv nahi diya jata. Is padhati mei yeh dhyan nahi rakha jata ki utpadan karya machine se ho raha hai,yeh yantro ki sahayta se. is padhtai mei samaya ka dhyan ni rakha jata hai.

Pratayksh majdoori k aadhar par;  is padhati mei factory vayya Pratayksh shram ka ek nishchit mane jate hai. Yeh pratishat gat varsho k anuroop k adhar par nirdharit ki jati hai. Adhikansh factorty yyayo ka Pratayksh shram k adhar per hi anumanit kiye jate hai.

Iske nimn gun hai, praishimik daro mei sithirta rehti hai. Samay gahat ko savam mahat mill jata hai.factory vyay ka pratishat sambandh shram se hota hai.

Iske nimn dosh hai, karya sharmiko duvara kiya jata hai ya mashineo duvara, is par dhyan ni diya jata. Kushal va aKushal sh bharmiko mei bhed nahi kiya jata hai. Yadi majdoori ka bhuktan karyanusar kiya jata hai toh parinamoo mei bhinta aati hai.

Mool lagat aadhar par; is padhtai mei karkhana vyay mool lagat k ek nishchit pratishat k roop mei liye jte hai. Yeh pratishat gat pratishat gat pratishat gat varsho k anubhav k ahar par hi nikali jati hai. Yeh padhati atyant saral hai, isme samagri v ashram dono aadhar par aprayataksh vyay anumanit kiye jate hai.

Iske nimn dosh hai;  mool lagat pratayksh samagri tatha pratayksh shram ka mishran hoti hai. Atah dono padhtaiyo k dosh isme paye jate hai. Is padhati mei is tathya ki upeksha ki jati hai ki karya manaviy shram duvara hua ya machine duvara. Is Padhati mei kushal, akushal sharmik athava sharmiko duvara kiye gaye karya ka koi prabhav nahi ni padhata hai.

Machine ghanta dar aadhar;

Is padhati mei prayatk machine, joh factory mei prayuk hoti hai,ko sanchalit karne ki prati ghanta dar nikali jati hai,aur vastu ko utpadit karne ya upkarm ko pura karne mei prayetak machine ka jitna upyog kiya jata hai,utne hi uprivyav us factory se vasool kiye jate hai. Jaise, ek machine ki machine ghanta dar 10 ruppes hai tatha machine ko vibhin karya par 500 gante tak prayog kiya gay hai, toh karkhana uprivyay 5000 honge.

Iske nimn gun hai;  machine ganta dar ritin adarsh avam vegayanik hai. Iske antargat factory uprivyay ko sathai roop se vibhakt kiya jata hai. Vyakigat jaanch k karan parinaam adhik vishvasneey hote hai.

Iske nimn dosh hai, dar nikalna ek jatil karya hai. Ganitiy karya mei virdhi hoti hai. Anek vyayo ka vibhajan is aadhar par nahi kiya ja sakta.

Karyalay uprivayay ka avshoshan ya batwara;

Karkhana uprivayak aadhar par- is padhati mei karyala uprivaya ko karkhana uprivayay k anupat mei vitrit kiya jata hai.

Factory lagat aadhar par-  yadi karayakal vyayo ki rashi aadhik hoti hai, toh inka vibhajan vastuoo ki factory lagat k aadhar par kiya jata hai.

Vikaraya va vitaran uprivyay ka avshoshan ya batwara-

Bikri ki jane wali vastouo k aadhar par- yadi bikri vyay utpadan k anupat mei ghate badhte hai aur utpadan ek hi kism ki vastuoo ka hota hai, toh sampurn bikri vayao ko vastoo k bhag dekar prati vastu ki anumanit bikari lagat nikali ja sakti hai.


12:47 AM

Pratayksh aur Apratayksh vyay mei antar va iske vibhin aango ki vyakha

Pratayksh aur Apratayksh vyay mei antar

Pratayksh  kar vah kar hai jo sampati, vyaki ki aay par lagta hai hai. Isse direct tax bhi kehte hai. Udharan ghar kar, bijli kar, custom duty ityaadi.

Features;

Yeh  Pratayksh  kar hai.Vyaki ki aay par lagta hai. Directly pay kiya jata hai. Ussi vyaki duvara pay kiya jat a hai jis par kar laga ho. Upbhogta k liye suvidhajank hota hai.

Apratayksh  kar vah kar hai joh ki ksi vyaki par lagta hai kintu vah kisi aanya vyaki duvara pay kiya jata hai.  Isse indirect tax bhi kmehte hai. Jaise; sales tax, manoorajan kar, cinema kar aadi.

Pratayksh aur Apratayksh vyay mei antar


Features;

Indirectly pay kiya jata hai. Upbhogta k liye asuvidhajank hota hai. Kisi aanya vyaki duvara pay kiya jata hai.

Lagat k tatvo ko do bhago mei bata ja sakta hai.

Pratayksh vyayPratayksh vyay veh hote hai, joh utpadit ikaiyo matra se Pratayksh roop se sambandhit hote hai. Arthat inka sidha sambhand utpadan se hota hai.

Visheshtayeen- utpadit vastuo ki ikaiyo ki matra se sambandait hote  hai.

Pratayksh vyayo mei nimn ko samilit kiya jata hai; Pratayksh samagri . Pratayksh ya anya Pratayksh vyay. Sabhi Pratayksh vyayo ka yoog mool lagat kehlata hai.

Apratayksh vyay Apratayksh vyay veh hote hai, jinka sidha sambhand utpadit vasto ki ikai se nahi hota.

Visheshtayeen- utpadit vastuo ki ikaiyo se sidha sambhand nahi hota. Yeah vaya pure vyavsay k liye hote hai. Prayeh inka anumaan lagaya ja sakta hai.

Pratayksh aur Apratayksh vyay mei antar-


Aang- shram, samagri va aanya Pratayksh vyay, Pratayksh vyayo k aang hai, joh karkhana uprivyay, karalya uprivay va bikri avam vitran uprivay Pratayksh k aang hai.

Utpadit ikaiyo se sambhand- Pratayksh vyay ikai Pratayksh roop se sambandhit hote hai, jabki apratayksh vyay ni.

Anumaan- Pratayksh vyay vastvik hote hai,jabki apratayksh vyay anumanit hote hai. Arthat inki calculation phele se ki jati hai arthat vyay ka  phele se hi anuman laga liya jata hai.

Pratayksh vyayo ka aang-


Pratayksh samagri- Pratayksh samagri veh hai joh utpadan ki jane wali mei prayaksh roop se proyog ki jati hai, tatha uska mukhya aang ban jati hai. Mool lagat gyat karne k liye prayukt samagri ki lagat phele nikalani hoti hai. Yeh nimn prakar nikali ja sakti hai.  

Pratayksh shram- joh shram utpadan mei sakriya bhaag leta hai joh samagri k roop badalne mei sahayta karta hai, Pratayksh shram kehlata hai. Isse nimn prakar gyat kiya ja sata hai.

Aanya Pratayksh vyay- utpadan k nimn vyay bhi Pratayksh vyay bhi mane jate hai, aatah inhe bhi lagat k roop mei apnana chaiye.

Utpadan shulk, adhikar shulk, bhavan nirmaan ka naksha avam dijaain vyay, aarkitat ki fees, kisi vishesh upkaram hatu prayogatamk vyay, vishesh ojjaro ka kiraya, kiraye par prapt yantr ki marramat, visheshoz k yatra vyay.

Apratayksh vyayo k aang

Karkhana uprivyay ya nirmani uprivyay- yeh vyay nirmanse sambhandhit hote hai  ya factory se sambhandit hote hai. Inhe pramukh roop se nimn ko samilit kiya jata hai.
Prakash shakti, koyla aadi. Haas, maramat va dekhbhaal. Draing vyay, municipal vyay ya kar. Nirikshan vyay. Dushit karyo ko thik karne k vyay. Aantrik yatayat. Aprayatksh shram.

Karayalya uprivyay- karyala k prashasan va prabhand kiye gaye vyay ya office overhead kehte hai  ya office cost kehte hai ya Karayalya uprivyay  kahe jate hai. Vetan, sanchalko ka shulk, karyalya kiraya, chapai, samanya vyay aadi.

Bikri va vitran uprivyay- yeh veh bikri va vitran se sambhandit hote hai. Isme mukhyat nimn vyayo ka samavesh hota hai;

Yatra vyay, vikratoo ka vetan, batta adhat va dalali, vitrit namune, shakho k kharche va kiraya, panking, vigyapan, yatri ajando  ka vetan aadi.
12:38 AM

Prakariya lagat vidhi ka arth v udeshye

Prakariya lagat vidhi

Grayak duara nirdeshit vishesh upkary par kiye gaye vyay ka vivran dene wali padhati ko upkary lagat padhati kaha jata hai.

Visheshtaye

Lagat prati ikai ya prati upkary ke liye nikali jati hai, yeh padhtai gyahko ke adesho ki purti ke liye apnai jatai hai, pratyek kary par arjit labh v hani gyat ki jati hai.

Lekhankan prakariya

Upkaryo ko nishchit  number pradan kiye jata hai, kreta duara adesh diya jata hai, sabhi prakar ki legato ka lekha kiya jata hai, upkary sampan ho jane par iski suchnaye kreta ko di jati hai.

Prakariya lagat vidhi

Prakariya lagat vidhi lagat gyat karne ki vidhi hai jiska upyog pratyek prakariya ke pratyek star par utpagat lagat gyat karne ke liye kiya jata hai.

Visheshtaye

Utpadan kary anek prakariyo se sambhandhit hota hai, kriyao ka kram nishchit hota hai, pratyek star par utpadan kim lagat gyat ki jati hai.

Prakariya lagat vidhi apnanae wale udhyog nimn hai, rasaynik udhyog, chini udhyog, vanaspati udhyog, kapra udhyog aadi.

Prakariya lagat ke tatv

Prakariya lagat ke mukhy tatav nimn hai, kachi samagri, shram, pratyaksh vyay, apratyaksh vyay, asadharan bachat,  jama paksh, sadharan shayay, asasharan shyay, tutefut ka vikrya muly.

Udeshy

Vibhin prakariyao ki lagat gyat karna, vibhin kushalta abvam mitvyayti ki jankari hona, vibhin parakariyayo mei hone wali shayay ka gyan karana, upotpad ka muly gyat karna.

Anatar

Prati ikai lagat

Upkary lagat padhati ki antergrat prati ikai lagat gyat ki jati hai jabki prakariya lagat padhati ke antegrat pratyek star par kul lagat v prati ikai lagat dono gyat ki jati hai.

Udeshy

Upkary lagat padhati grahako ke updesho ki purti ke liye apnai jati hai jabki prakariya lagat padhti nirman ke kul  lagat gyat karne ke liye apnai jati hai.

Labh hani gyat karna

Upkary padhati ke pratyek kary par arjit labh hani gyat ki jati hai jabki prakariya lagat padhati mei kul utpadan lagat par vishesh dhyan diya jata hai.

Pratyak v apratak shram mei anter

Pratyak shram veh hai jiska utapadan karne mei sakriye sahyog rehta hai jabki apratyaksh shram veh hai jo utpadan ki matra v gun ke sath pratyaksh roop se sambhandhit nahi hota. Jaise kapra mil mei kapre ki bunai mei lage shramiko ko di gayi majdori apratyaskh shram ki shreni mei aati hai.

Anubhajan mei abantan mei anter

Uprivayayo ko vibhin vibhago mei vibhajit karne ki prakariya ko anubhajan kahte hai, jabki vibhago ke upraivayayo ko vibhajan ke duara udpadit ikaiyo ya karyo mei bantavara karne ki prakariya ko bantavara ya sanvilayan kahte hai.

Sanyukt udpad avam upotapad mei anter

Sanyukt udpad

Jab eak hi parlariya mei do ya do se adhik eak saman mehetv wali vastue nirmkit hoti hai to unhe sanyukt udpad kaha jata hai.

Iski visheshtaye yeh hai ki ye eak hi parakar ki kachi samagri se tayar hote hai, eak hi parakaria se utpan hote hai, sabhi utpad saman mehetv wale hote hai.

Upotpad

Jab mukhy udpad ke sath kuch sahayak vastue utpan ho jaye to use upotpad kahenge jaise ki chini ke utapadn mei sheera, tail utpadan mei khali aadi.

Iski viheshtaye hai yeh swatah utpad hai, mukhy utapd par vishesh dhyan diya jata hai, in utpado ka kuch bhotik muly hota hai.

Upotpad ka lekha

Yadi upotpad ka muly  bahaut adhik hota hai to iski bikri ki rashi ko mukhy utpad khate mei credit kar diya jata hai. Lakin muly adhik ho tatha aage iska vidhayan karna ho to alag se khata khola jata hai tatha lagte vibhajit ki jati hai.

Sanyukt utpad ki lagat gyat karna

Utpad ki bhotik map ke adhar par anyukt utpad ki lagat gyat karte hai, ausat ikai lagat ke adhar par sanyukt utpad ki lagat gyat ki jati hai, sarvekshan padhtai mei pratyek utpad ka sapekshit mehatv dekha jata hai, bajar muly padhati se bhi sanyukt utpad ki lagat gyat ki ja sakti hai. 

12:14 AM

Machine Ghanta Dar Avam Parichalan Lagat

Machine Ghanta Dar

Machine ghanta dar riti ke antergrat proyog mei ane wali machine mulye, karyashakti, karyashamta, aadi ko dhyan mei rakhkar machine par hone wale varsh bhar ke apytak kahrcho tatha  us machine ko chalane kishakti ghanto mei nikali jati hai. Iske kul kahrcho mei machine ghanta dar ki ganna ki jati hai. Apratyak kharcho ko uchit adhar par bantna chaiye.

Vibhagiye vyayo ka vitran

Apratyaksh kharcho ko uchit adhar par bantne ki vibhag ke kharcho ko us vibhag  ki machino par vitrit karna chaiye.

Avshesh muly ki manyta

Machine ke vshesh mulyo ko bhi dhayn mei rakhna chaiye.

Sharmik sankhyao ka dhyan

Pratyek machine par hone wali majdoori ke kharcho tatha shramiko ki sankhya ko gyat karna chaiye.

Sthai parivartansheet vyayo ka vibhajan

Machino par hone wale kharcho ko sthai v parivartansheel bhago mei bant dena chaiye.

Sthai vyayo ka vibhajan

Machine duara ghere shetrafal ke adhar par bantana chaiye, machino ke horse pawer ke adhar par bantna chaiye, yeh kharche pratyek machine ke liye alag alag hote hai.

Parivartan kharcho ka nirdhan

parivartansheel vyay ko pray pratighanta gyat kiya jata hai, Machine ke mulya mei kul ghanto ko bhaag dene se prati ghanta hraas ki dar nirdharit ki jati hai, Iska lekha pratyek machine ke liye alag kiya jayega, pray alag alag meter laga hota hai, ateh meter reading ke anusaar shakti ke kahrcho ka nirdharan karta hai.

Karysheel ghanto ki ganna

Machine ke dekhbhal mei jo samay lagta hai use karyesheel ghante nahi mante, machine ko set karne ke samay ko kul ghanto mei ghatakar karysheel ghanto ki ganna ki jati hai, karyeheen samay ko kul ghanto ki ganna ki jati hai.

Machine ghantadar vidhi ke gun

Samay ka mehtav

Samay ko mehatv mill jata hai kyunki hras adi ki ganna mei samay ko dhayn mei rakha jata hai.

Factory vyayo ki uchit vibhajat mei upyogi

Kyunki factory ke kharcho ka pratyaksh sambhandh machino se hota hai. Ateh machine ghantadar factory upri vayayo ke batvaro mei vishesh upyogi hoti hai.

Sthai v asthai vyao ka batavara

Sthai v asthai vyao ka alag alag dhyan mei rakha jata hai, ateh dono ka batvara ka sambhav hota hai.

Upyukta

Jaha adhikansh karye mahcino duraa kiya jata hai, vaha yeh upyukt vidhi hai.

Machine ghantadar vidhi ke dosh

Bantavre mei asuvidha

Alag alag prakar ki machine ka prayog hone ke karan kharcho ke batvare mei asuvidha ho jati hai.

Jatilta

Ganitye karya badh jata hai, ateh jatilta bhi badhti hai.

Kuch vyayo mahchino se pratyaksh roop se sambhandhit nahi

Kuch factory vyay aise hote hai jinka sambhandh machino se nahi hota.

Parichalan Lagat

Ashay

Kuch santhaye vastuo ka utpadan nahi karti, varan sevaye pradan karti hai, jaise rail, metro, bijli, company aadi. Is prakar parichalan lagat se tatprya us lagat se hai jo kul sthai vyayo tatha sanchalit vyayo ke yog ko seva ikai se bhag dene par prapt hoti hai.

Viheshtaye

Iska prayog sevaye pradan karne wali sanstha duara kiya jata hai. Kul lagat mei seva ki kul ikaiyo ka bhaag de diya jata hai jo parinaam aata hai use prati ikai parichalan lagat kaha jata hai, iska upyog nimn sansthaye karti hai; railway, motor company, tramvay, gas companies, watervarkas, haspatal, school, daak v taar adi.

Vibhin mando ki vyakhya

Sthati lagat

Yeh vo vyay hote hai jo utpadan ki seva ki matra se sambhandit nahi hote, varan lagbhag sthir swabhav ke hote hai. Inme mukhye hai license kharche, kiaraya, nirikashan vyay aadi.

Anurakshan vyay

Isme hras tatha maramat ko samilit kiya jata hai, sampati ki kul lagat mei sthatpna vyay jodkar tatha scrap ko ghata kar jo shesh rakam bachti hai usi par hras ki ganna ki jati hai. 

12:11 AM

Lagat nirdharan ki pravidhiya

Etihasik Lagat Pravidhi

Is pravidhi ke antergrat vastu ka nirman pura ho jane ke uprant us par kiye gaye vyay ke adhar par vastu ki lagat gyat ki jati hai.

Pramap lagat pravidhi

Is pravidhi ke antergrat vegyanik adhar par pehle se hi pramaap vyay nirdharit kar diye jate hai. Pramap vastvik lagato se ki jati hai.

Simant lagat pravidhi

Is pravidhi ke antergrat samast legato ko sthir v parivartan sheel vyayo ke roop mei bant diya jata hai. Eak atirikt ikai ke utpadan par veh simant lagat hai.

Pratyaksh lagat pravidhi

Is pravidhi ke antergrat lagat mei keval pratyaksh vyay ko hi samilit kiya jata hai, apratyaksh vyay ko bhi labh hani kom khate mei hi le liya jata hai.

Avshoshan lagat pravidhi

Is pravidhi mei lagatar gyat karne ke liye sthir v parivartansheel pratyaksh avam apratyaksh lagate samilit ki jati hai.

Eakroop lagat pravidhi

Yadi eak udhyog mei lagi sabhi sansthaye eak hi lagat vidhi ka prayog kare to ise eakroop lagat pravidhi kahte hai.

Lagat nirdharan padhati ki isthapna

Iske liye nimn ladam uthaye jayenge, udpadit vastuao ki takiniki visheshtao ka adhyan karna, utpadit vastu ki prakrati ka adhyan karna, lagat kendro ka nirdharan karna, lagat ikai tay karna, lagat lekha sambhandhi prakariyo ka nirdharan karna, noyantran ki matra tay karna, pramapo ka praroop tay karna, mehtavpurn suchnao ke liye praivedan ke swaroop ka nirdharan karna.

Theka Khata

Theka Khata se tatpary us khate se hai jo eak thekadar duara kisi tgheke se utpan labh ki ganna karne ke liye tayar kiya jata hai.

Visheshtaye

Yeh thekedar duara tayar kiya jata hai, kisi nirman karyo se sambhandhit hota hai, theka kary se utpan labh ki ganna ki jati hai.

Samadhan vivran patra

Lagat lekho mei kuch anumanit anko ka bhi prayog kiya jata hai jabki vitye lekh kuch samay baad banaye jate hai aur inme vastavik anko ka prayog kiya jata hai. Is prakar lagat lekho v vitiye lekho duara dikhaye gaye parinamo mei anter swabhavik hai jo vibvran patra anter ke karano ka pata lagakar unme sambhandh sthapit karta hai, use Samadhan vivran patra kahte hai.

Ww big ka anusar, yedhyapi bahaut si dashao mei lagat lekhe v vitiye lekhe purnta alag alag rakhe jatye hai lakin yeh ati avashyak hai ki beh eak dusre ke Milan karne ke yogya banaye jaye.

Visheshtaye

Lagat lekho avam vitiye lekho ke labho ka Milan kiya jata hai, anter ke karano par praskash dala jata hai, vitiye avadhi ke uprant yeh vivran patra banaye jata hai.

Parinamo mei anter ke karan

Pratyaksh vyayo mei anter

Praya Pratyaksh vyayo dono prakar ke lekho mei vastavik hote hail akin kabhi kabhi pratyaksh vyay bhi asadharan karya kushalta ke karan anter hota hai.

Apratyaksh vyay mei anter

Lagat lekho mei Apratyaksh vyay ka bhi kisi nishchit adhar par anuman lagaya jata hai ateh veh anumanit hote hai kintu vitye lekh vastavik hote hai ateh in dono duara pradarshit labho mei bhi anter hota hai.

Lagat lekho mei kuch vayay ka samanesh na hona

kuch vayay jaise aaykar, rinpatro par byaj, kunji par byaj aadi kom lagat mei samilit nahi kiya jata, is karan dono labho mei anter swabhavik hai. Aprachlan ki hani ka bhi lagat lekho mei lekha nahi kiya jata.

Lagat shetrao mei kuch aayo ko samilit nahi kiay jana

Ansho par labhansh viniyogo par byaj, kunji par byaj, aadi ko lagat lekho mei samilit nahi kiya jata, ateh ye dono legato mei anter hota hai.

Samtulan utpadan se ashay

Jab kisi nirman ke antetgat yeh gyat kiya jata hai ki ardh nirmit ikaiya kitni purn nirmit ikaiyo ke barabar hai to ise samtuly utpadan kaha jata hai.