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Monday, June 11, 2018

Udhyam evam Udhyami ki Paribhasha | Udhyami Udhyog ke Vikas ki Dhuri Hein

Udhyam (Enterprise)

Jab Manviya shram ya mashino ke madhyam se kisi vastu ko is prakar se parivartit kiaya jata hein ki veh vastu vartmaan rup mein adhik upyogi ho jae to ise udhyam, kaha jata hein.

Rup, Gun, Aakar aadi mein parivarstan ki prakiriya hi udhyog hein. Ek kriya ke madhyam se nirmit maal agli kriya ke liye kacha maal ho sakta hein. Kriyaye tab tak chalegi, jab tak vastu antim upbhog ke ie taiyar na ho. Rajkiya sahayata uplabadh karane ke uddeshay se sarkar dwara viniyog ke aadhar par udhyogo ka vibhajan nimn prakar se kiya gaya hein.

Udhyam evam Udhyami ki Paribhasha


Madhyam v Bhari udhyog: Aesi Udhyogik ikaiya jinme 300 lakh rupayo se adhik viniyog ho, unhe madhyam v bhari udhyog ki shreni mein rakha jata hein.

Laghu Udhyog: Aese Udhyog Laghu Udhyog kahe jaenge jinme plant evam machinery ki madd 25 lakh rupaye se 300 lakh rupay tak vinoyojit ho, Bhale hi machinery patte par ho ya kiraya kray padhatti paror swamitav ke kisi anya swarup mein ho.

Laghutarr Udhyog: In shreni mein un udhyogo ko rakha jata hein, Jinki plant evam machinery ki madd mein 25 lakh rupay tak ka viniyog hota hein. Ye desh ke kisi bhi bhag mein sthapit kiye ja sakte hein.

Purak Udhyog: Aese Udhyog jo parts, component sab assemblies, tools ya intermediates ka utpadan karte hein ya utpadan ka prastaav rakhte hein tatha apne utpadan se 50% se adhik hissa ek ya ek se adhik mul udhyogo ko bechne ya aapurti karne ka prastaav karte hein, Purak udhyog kehlate hein.

Small Scale service Business Enterprises: Laghu Striya sewa mein un seva pratishthano ko sammilit kiya jata hein jisme bhumi, bhawan, ko chodkar sthayi viniyog 5 lakh rupay tak hota hein, or jiska uddeshay sewa pradan karna hota hein.


Udhyami (Enterpreneur)


James Burn ke anusaar, “Udhyami veh vyakti athwa vyaktiyo ka veh samuh hein jo kisi naye Upkram ki sthapana ke liye uttardayi hota hein.”

Vaalras ke anussar, “Udhyami Veh vyakti hein jo dusre udhyamiyo se kaccha maal, Bhumipatiyo se bhumi, Shramiko se vyaktigat abhiruchiyan, punjipati se punjigat maal kharidta hein tatha inki sewao se nirmit vastuao ka bechta hein.”

Udhyami Ki Visheshtaye (Characteristics of an Enterepreneur)

Jokhim Uthane Wala (Risk Bearing): “Udhyami” Jokhin uthane wala vyakti ya jokhim uthane wala vyaktiyo ka samuh hein. Nav-Pravartan ka kary Jokhim ke liye hota hein. Ateh Udhyami ki ek pramukh visheshta Jokhim Uthana bhi hein.

Udhyami Ka kary Mansik hein (Mental Work): Udhyami ka kary mansik swabhav ka hein. Iske lie use pure manoyog se kary karna hota hein.

Nav-Pravartak (Innovator): “Udhyami” Nav-Pravartan ka kary karta hein. Shumpiter “Udhyami” ko “Nav-Pravartak” ke rup mein paribhashit karte karte hein jo naveen vidhiyo v vastuo se purani vidhiyo evam vastuo kop prabhawait karta hein.

“Udhyami” evam Prabandhak ek nahi (Different from managers): Udhyami Prabandhak se bhinn hein or adhik bada hein. Forest evam frenj ke anusaar, “Udhyami prabandhak se adhik bada hein. Veh nav-pravartak evam pravartak dono hi hein.”

Vyakti, Sanstha ya samuh (Individual, Organization or group): “Udhyami” Ek vyakti, sanstha ya vyaktiyo ka samuh ho sakta hein. Jo bhi nav-pravartan ka krya karti hein, use udhyami kaha jata hein. Ateh is prakar, kampaniya, Sajhedari Sansthaye, Sarkar aadi vikasshil rashtro mein udhyamiyo ke pramikh rup hein.

Udhyami ka pratifal laabh hota hein (Profit is consideration for entrepreneurship): Udhyamita jokhimpurn karya hein. Jokhim ka pratifal laabh hota hein isliye udhyami laabh ki aasha mein sahsik karya karta hein. Udhyami ka parishramik pehle se hi nishchit nahi hota.

Udhyami ki bhumika ka mehatv (Role of Importance of Enterpreneur)
Ek udhyami kisi bhi rashtra ke liye bahut hi mehtavpurv hota hein. Udhyam ike mehtav ko nimn prakar se haaka ja sakta hein.


Desh ki aavashyaktao kio purti karne ke baad udhyami aavashykta se adhijk maal ko videshi bajaro mein bechta hein jisse niryaton mein vridhi hoti hein or desh ko bahumuly videshi mudra prapt hoti hein. Ek udhyami utpadan mei vridhi ko protasahit karta hein. Udhyami Utapatti ke sabhi sadhano ko is prakar samayojit karta hein jisse ki nyuntam lagat par adhiktam utpadan sambhav ho sake. Utpatti ke vibhinn sadhano ki madad se veh utpadan mein vridhi karta hein.

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